GRAMMAR · Spelling and pronunciation · Sentences · Nouns · Determiners · Pronouns · Adjectives · Adverbs · Verbs · Prepositions · Conjunctions · Questions · Clauses · Numbers · Word formation · Abbreviations · Punctuation
An adjective is a word that modifies the meaning of a noun. Typical adjectives denote the qualities, properties, or attributes of the referents of their nouns.
In LFN, adjectives do not change to indicate number or gender.
Most adjectives follow the noun they modify. However, bon ("good") and mal ("bad") normally precede the noun, unless they are themselves modified:
- un bon can – a good dog
- un can plu bon – a better dog (modified by plu)
- la mal enfante – the bad child
- un mal can bon instruida – a bad dog well trained
- bon enfantes mal comprendeda – good children poorly understood
In most cases, it's possible to add more than one adjective after the noun without causing confusion. But in some cases, one of the adjectives may also be understood as an adverb modifying the meaning of the following adjective. E can be placed between adjectives to avoid the confusion:
- la nara vera longa – the really long story (vera = averbo)
- la nara vera e longa – the true (and) long story (vera = ajetivo)
- la om grande, forte, e stupida – the big, strong, stupid man (tre ajetivos)
In some cases, an adjective is placed before the noun: for style in poetry or stories, o when two adjectives of similar weight are involved:
- la peti casa bela – the lovely little house
- un fea arbor vea – an ugly old tree
The most suitable adjectives for use before the noun are the simplest and shortest ones, such as bela, fea, nova, vea, grande, and peti.
Comparative adjectives are formed by adding the adverbs plu ("more") and min ("less"). "Than" is ca:
- La cosina es plu calda ca la jardin. – The kitchen is hotter than the garden.
- Esta leto es min comfortosa ca me ia previde. – This bed is less comfortable than I expected.
Superlative adjectives are formed by adding the adverbs la plu ("most") and la min ("least"):
- La sol es la ojeto la plu calda en la sistem solal. – The sun is the hottest object in the solar system.
- El ia ave un fia la plu bela en la mundo. – She had a daughter, the most beautiful (of daughters) in the world.
Ordinal numbers can be combined with the superlative construction:
- Vega es la stela sinco la plu briliante en la sielo de note. – Vega is the fifth brightest star in the night sky.
- El ia deveni la om tre de la plu ricas en la mundo. – He became the third richest man in the world.
Equality comparisons use the combination tan... como... ("so... as..."):
- La arbor ia es tan alta como un casa. – The tree was as tall as a house.
- On es tan joven como on senti. – You're as young as you feel.
Adjectives as nouns Edit
Any adjective can be reused unchanged as a noun, whose meaning is a person or a thing that has that adjective's quality. The resulting noun obeys the normal rules for nouns – it takes -s when plural, requires a determiner, and can be modified by adjectives of its own:
- Esta anelo es perfeta sirculo. Lo es un sirculo perfeta. – This ring is perfectly circular. It is a perfect circle.
- Marilyn es un blonde, e seniores prefere blondes. – Marilyn is a blonde, and gentlemen prefer blondes.