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La cultur de Europa es fundida en la arte, arciteta, musica, leteratur e filosofia cual es orijinal de la rejion european[1] e on refere frecuente a lo como se "erita cultural comun"[2].

ElementosEdit

Car la grande numero de perspetivas cual pote es elejeda en la sujeto, lo es nonposible formi un conseti singular de la cultur european.[3]. An tal, on ave elementos xef cual on acorda cual formi un funda cultural de la Europa moderna[4]. Un lista de esta elementos donada per K. Bochmann inclui[5]:

  • Un erita spirital e cultural comun derivada de la anticia elinica-roman, la cristianisme, la Renase e se umanisme, la pensa political de la Lumina e la Revolui Franses, e la develop de la Modernia, incluinte tota tipos de sosialisme;[6]
  • Un cultur material rica e dinamica cual ia estende a otra continentes como resulta de industri e colonialism durante la "Grande Diverje";[6]
  • Un conseta spesifica de la individua espresada per la esiste de un legalia cual garantia la diretos uman e la libria de la individuas;[6]
  • Un varia de statos con ordes political diferente, cual es condenada a vive juntada en un forma u otra;[6]
  • Respeta per la poplas, statos e nasiones estra Europa.[6]

La conseta de cultur european es jeneral liada a la defini clasica de la mundo oeste. En esta defini, la cultur ueste es la colie de prinsipes leteratural, siensal, political, artal e filosofal cual separa Europa de otra sivilias.

La premio Nobel de leteratur Thomas Stearns Eliot en se libro de 1948 Notes Towards the Definition of Culture, ia reconose la influi cristian sur la cultur european[7]:

Me parla sur la tradision comun de cristianisme cual ia fa ce Europa deveni lo cual lo es, e sur la elementos cultural comun cual esta cristianisme comun ia trae. Si Asia ta es convertida oji, lo no ta causa ce lo deveni un parte de Europa. Lo es en cristianisme ce la leges de Europa ia es radisida, a min asta resente. Lo es de la contesto de cristianisme cual tota de nos pensas deriva se sinifia. Un european individua pota no crede ce la fide de cristianisme es vera, ma ancora tota de lo cual el dise, e crea, e fa, va leva de se erita de la cultur cristian, e depende de acel cultur per se sinifia. Sola un cultur cristian ia pote produi un Voltaire o un Nietzsche. Me no crede ce la cultur de Europa ta pote survive la desapare completa de cristianisme.... La mundo ueste ave se unia en esta erita, en cristianisme, e en la sivilia antica de Elas, Roma, e Israel, de cual, tra du mil anios de cristianisme, nos calcula nos desende.[nota 1]

Arte Edit

Article xef: Arte european
Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci. Entre se obras on trova la Mona Lisa e La Ultima Come de Sera. La sola obra ta famosa es La Crea de Adan per Michelangelo.

Depinto Edit

Article xef: Depinto european

La depinto plu vea conoseda es locada en la cava El Castillo (Espania), plu vea ca 40 800 anios[8]. La istoria de la depinto ueste representa un tradision continuante de la Anticia. Asta media la sentenio 19, ia es consernada con la manera de produi e la representa clasica e pos otra formas plu astrata e consetal ia es favoreda.

ScultaEdit

Article xef: Sculta

La prima sculta european representa un fem, e ave 35 000 anios. Vide ance sculta clasica, sculta elinica antica, Arte gotica, Renase, Baroca, Neoclassicism, modernisme, arte consetal.

Musica Edit

Main festivals includes: Sanremo Music Festival, Coca-Cola Summer Festival (Italy), Glastonbury, Reading and Leeds Festivals, Isle of Wight Festival, T in the Park (UK), Fête de la Musique, Eurockéennes, Vieilles Charrues Festival, Hellfest (France), Wacken (Germany), Festival Internacional de Benicàssim, Primavera Sound (Spain), Exit Festival (Serbia), Sziget Festival (Hungary), Roskilde Festival (Denmark), Rock Werchter, Tomorrowland (Belgium) & Eurovision (music competition between European countries). Domino Recording Company, Bertelsmann Music Group, PolyGram, EMI, Universal Music Group (Subsidiary of French company Vivendi) are the largest European music companies.

Arciteta Edit

Article xef: Istoria de arciteta

Arciteta neolitica: Naseda en la este, la arciteta de la neolitica ia estende a Europa. La cultures neolitica mediteranean de Malta ia adora en templos megalitica. En Europa, casas construida de acasia ia es construida e ance tombas detaliosa per la mores. Esta tombas es multe numerosa en Er, do multa tombas esiste oji. La poplas neolitica ia construi grande tumulos.

Vide ance: arciteta de Elas clasica, arciteta de Roma antica, arciteta medieval, arciteta de la Renase, arciteta baroca.

Leteratur Edit

Homero

Homero

Shakespeare

William Shakespeare

Europa ia produi alga de la plu importante scrivores de la istoria:

See Western art history, dance, drama, and circus arts.

Filma Edit

Article xef: Sinema european
File:Alfred Hitchcock NYWTSm.jpg

Antoine Lumière realized, on 28 December 1895, the first projection, with the Cinematograph, in Paris.[11] Philippe Binant realized, on 2 February 2000, the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris.[12] In 1897, Georges Méliès established the first cinema studio on a rooftop property in Montreuil, near Paris. Some notable European film movements include German Expressionism, Italian neorealism, French New Wave, Polish Film School, New German Cinema, Portuguese Cinema Novo, Czechoslovak New Wave, Dogme 95, New French Extremity, and Romanian New Wave. The cinema of Europe has its own awards, the European Film Awards. Main festivals : Cannes Film Festival (France), Berlin International Film Festival (Germany). The Venice Film Festival (Italy) or Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica di Venezia, is the oldest film festival in the world.

Siensa Edit

Article xef: Istoria de siensa
  • CERN: La Organiza European per Rexerca Nucleal es la loca de nase de la WWW (la ueb) e la loca de la macina la plu grande en la mundo: la Colidador Grande de Hadrones. Lo es la laboreria la plu grande de la fisica de particulas, locada en la suburbes norde-ueste de Geneve sur la frontera entre Frans e Suiz, instituida en 1954. En novembre de 2010, la colides otenida ia pote jenera la temperatures e densias la plu alta produida en un esperimenta a cualce ves, creante un "Buma Grande" miniatur plu calda par milion veses ca la sentro de la sol.[13]
  • ESA : The European Space Agency's space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observations, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana and designing launch vehicles. The main European launch vehicle Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle. On 12 November 2014, ESA's Philae probe achieved the first-ever soft landing on a comet.
Einstein 1921 by F Schmutzer - restoration

Albert Einstein

300px-GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689

Isaac Newton

Europa ia produi alga de la plu importante siensistes e inteletosas de la istoria.

PhilosophyEdit

European philosophy is a predominant strand of philosophy globally, and is central to philosophical enquiry in America and most other parts of the world which have fallen under its influence.

The Greek schools of philosophy in antiquity provide the basis of philosophical discourse that extends to today. Christian thought had a huge influence on many fields of European philosophy (as European philosophy has been on Christian thought too), sometimes as a reaction.

Perhaps one of the most important single philosophical periods since the classical era were the Renaissance, the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment. There are many disputes as to its value and even its timescale. What is indisputable is that the tenets of reason and rational discourse owe much to René Descartes, John Locke and others working at the time.

Other important European philosophical strands include: Analytic philosophy, Anarchism, Christian Democracy, Communism, Conservatism, Constructionism, Deconstructionism, Empiricism, Epicureanism, Existentialism, Fascism, Humanism, Idealism, Internationalism, Liberalism, Logical positivism, Marxism, Materialism, Monarchism, Nationalism, Perspectivism, Platonism, Positivism, Postmodernism, Protestantism, Rationalism, Relativism, Republicanism, Romanticism, Scepticism, Scholasticism, Social Democracy, Socialism, Stoicism, Structuralism, Thomism, Utilitarianism, Spenglerism.

RelijioEdit

Article xef: Relijio en Europa
File:Europe religion map en.png

La relijios indo-european ia es: mitolojias uralica, politeisme celta, paganisme germanica, relijio elinica antica, relijio etrusca e mitolojia slavica.

La Eurobarometer Poll 2005[14] ia trova ce,

per promedia, la 52% de la sitadanes de la Uni European afirma cual crede en Dio, 27% believe there is some sort of spirit or life force while 18% do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force. 3% declined to answer. According to new polls about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union accounting 72% of EU citizens. Non believer/Agnostic account 16%, Atheist account's 7%, and Muslim 2%.[15]

Christianity has been the dominant religion shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years.[16][17][18][19][20] Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture,[21] The Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science.[22][23] The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom" many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity.[24]

The most popular religions of Europe are the following (by dominant religion):

There are significant Catholic minorities in the Netherlands,[41] southern Germany,[42] Switzerland, the Czech Republic,[43] western and central Belarus, western Ukraine,[44] Hungarian-speaking Romania, Albania, parts of Russia, the Latgale region of Latvia, The Netherlands, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, England (UK), Scotland (UK),[45] and Wales (UK),[46] and indeed small minorities in most of the other European countries.

Cosina Edit

Article xef: Cosina de Europa

La cosinas de europa ueste es diversa, an si on ave cualis comun cual distingue la cosina de Europa de la de paises asian. Compared with traditional cooking of Asian countries, for example, meat is more prominent and substantial in serving-size. Steak in particular is a common dish across the West. Similarly to some Asian cuisines, Western cuisines also put substantial emphasis on sauces as condiments, seasonings, or accompaniments (in part due to the difficulty of seasonings penetrating the often larger pieces of meat used in Western cooking). Many dairy products are utilized in the cooking process, except in nouvelle cuisine. Wheat-flour bread has long been the most common sources of starch in this cuisine, along with pasta, dumplings and pastries, although the potato has become a major starch plant in the diet of Europeans and their diaspora since the European colonization of the Americas.

VesteEdit

Article xef: Istoria de la veste

The earliest definite examples of needles originate from the Solutrean culture, which existed in France and Spain from 19,000 BC to 15,000 BC. The earliest dyed flax fibers have been found in a cave the Republic of Georgia and date back to 36,000 BP. See Clothing in ancient Rome, 1100–1200 in fashion, 1200–1300 in fashion, 1300–1400 in fashion, 1400–1500 in fashion, 1500–1550 in fashion, 1550–1600 in fashion, 1600–1650 in fashion, 1650–1700 in fashion, Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.

SporteEdit

Template:Main La influi de Europe en la sporte es enorme. Indeed, it is difficult to think of a modern sport, apart from basketball and related sports, that does not have its origins in Europe. Sportes european inclui:

In addition, Europe has numerous national or regional sports which do not command a large international following outside of emigrant groups. These include:

Some sporting organisations hold European Championships.

Some sport competitions feature a European team gathering athletes from different European countries. These teams use the European flag as an emblem. The most famous of these competitions is the Ryder Cup in golf Template:Citation needed.

Capitales de CulturEdit

Template:Main

Each year since 1985 one or more cities across Europe are chosen as European Capital of Culture. Here are the past and future capitals:

  • 1985: Athens
  • 1986: Florence
  • 1987: Amsterdam
  • 1988: Berlin
  • 1989: Paris
  • 1990: Glasgow
  • 1991: Dublin
  • 1992: Madrid
  • 1993: Antwerp
  • 1994: Lisbon
  • 1995: Luxembourg
  • 1996: Copenhagen
  • 1997: Thessaloniki
  • 1998: Stockholm
  • 1999: Weimar
  • 2000: Avignon, Bergen, Bologna, Brussels, Helsinki, Kraków, Prague, Reykjavík, Santiago de Compostela
  • 2001: Rotterdam, Porto
  • 2002: Bruges, Salamanca
  • 2003: Graz
  • 2004: Genoa, Lille
  • 2005: Cork
  • 2006: Patras
  • 2007: Sibiu, Luxembourg, Greater Region
  • 2008: Liverpool, Stavanger
  • 2009: Vilnius Linz
  • 2010: Essen (representing the Ruhr), Istanbul, Pécs
  • 2011: Turku, Tallinn
  • 2012: Guimarães, Maribor
  • 2013 Marseille, Košice
  • 2014: Umeå, Riga [4]
  • 2015: Mons, Plzeň
  • 2016: San Sebastián, Wrocław[5]
  • 2017: Aarhus,[6] Paphos
  • 2018: Malta, Netherlands
  • 2019: Matera, Italy

Simboles Edit

Vide ance Edit

Notas Edit

  1. I am talking about the common tradition of Christianity which has made Europe what it is, and about the common cultural elements which this common Christianity has brought with it. If Asia were converted to Christianity tomorrow, it would not thereby become a part of Europe. It is in Christianity that our arts have developed; it is in Christianity that the laws of Europe have--until recently--been rooted. It is against a background of Christianity that all our thought has significance. An individual European may not believe that the Christian Faith is true, and yet what he says, and makes, and does, will all spring out of his heritage of Christian culture and depend upon that culture for its meaning. Only a Christian culture could have produced a Voltaire or a Nietzsche. I do not believe that the culture of Europe could survive the complete disappearance of the Christian Faith.[. . .] The Western World has its unity in this heritage, in Christianity and in the ancient civilisations of Greece, Rome, and Israel, from which, owing to two thousand years of Christianity, we trace our descent.

ReferesEdit

  1. (2015) A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 2.
  2. Cf. Berting (2006:51).
  3. Cederman (2001:2) remarks: "Given the absence of an explicit legal definition and the plethora of competing identities, it is indeed hard to avoid the conclusion that Europe is an essentially contested concept." Cf. also Davies (1996:15); Berting (2006:51).
  4. Cf. Jordan-Bychkov (2008:13), Davies (1996:15), Berting (2006:51-56).
  5. K. Bochmann (1990) L'idée d'Europe jusqu'au XXè siècle, quoted in Berting (2006:52). Cf. Davies (1996:15): "No two lists of the main constituents of European civilization would ever coincide. But many items have always featured prominently: from the roots of the Christian world in Greece, Rome and Judaism to modern phenomena such as the Enlightenment, modernization, romanticism, nationalism, liberalism, imperialism, totalitarianism."
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Berting 2006
  7. Selected T.S. Eliot on Tradition, Poetry, Faith, and Culture
  8. Template:Cite news
  9. Template:Cite web
  10. Template:Cite news
  11. December 28, 1895.
  12. Cahiers du cinéma, n°hors-série, Paris, April 2000, p. 32 (cf. also Histoire des communications, 2011, p. 10.).
  13. Template:Cite news
  14. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf
  15. Template:Citation The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
  16. Religions in Global Society - Page 146, Peter Beyer - 2006
  17. Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era.
  18. Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953),Stanford University Press, p.2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization — the civilization of western Europe and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo - Graeco - Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.
  19. Horst Hutter, University of New York, Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004), p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato.
  20. Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (2004), p.22: Western civilization is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization.
  21. Dawson, Christopher (1961). Crisis in Western Education, reprint edició, p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.
  22. Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission, Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4.
  23. Dawson, Christopher (1961). Crisis in Western Education, reprint edició. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.
  24. Dawson, Christopher (1961). Crisis in Western Education, reprint edició, p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836.
  25. Global Christianity.
  26. Template:Cite web
  27. Template:Cite web
  28. 28.0 28.1 Discrimination in the European Union in 2012 - T98 and T99.
  29. Template:Cite web
  30. EVS Luxembourg 2008 CEPS/INSTEAD
  31. 31.0 31.1 Template:Cite web
  32. Template:Cite web
  33. Ipsos MORI, Views on globalisation and faith, 5 July 2011
  34. http://www.clerus.org/clerus/dati/2008-12/05-6/proportioncathos08.htm
  35. Kirchenaustritte gingen 2012 um elf Prozent zurück
  36. 36.0 36.1 2011 Hungary Census Report
  37. Census 2002 "population by religions"
  38. Template:Cite web
  39. Template:Cite web
  40. Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. Template:Cite web. 2013-03-15.
  41. Template:Cite news
  42. Template:Cite web
  43. Template:Cite web
  44. Piotr Eberhardt. Ethnic groups and population changes in twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe: history, data, analysis. M.E. Sharpe, 2003. pp.92–93. ISBN 978-0-7656-0665-5
  45. Template:Cite web
  46. Template:Cite web
  47. Template:Cite web
  48. Religion and denominations in the Republic of Belarus by the Commissioner on Religions and Nationalities of the Republic of Belarus from November 2011
  49. http://features.pewforum.org/grl/population-percentage.php
  50. Template:Cite web
  51. 2011 census, p. 5.
  52. [1].
  53. 2002 Census Results. p. 132
  54. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html
  55. The newest polls show about 20% Greek citizens being irreligious which is much more than 1%. Ultimately, the statistics are disputed until the results of the new census.
  56. Template:Cite web
  57. http://www.rferl.mobi/a/moldovans_rally_against_recognition_of_islam/24179150.html
  58. 2011 Census Religion Statistics (final results) Template:Ro icon
  59. http://www.pewforum.org/2011/12/19/global-christianity-exec/ Pew
  60. Book 3 Page 13
  61. "What religious group do you belong to?". Sociology poll by Razumkov Centre about the religious situation in Ukraine (2006)
  62. Template:Cite web
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  64. name="svenskakyrkan 2013">Svenska kyrkan i siffror Svenska kyrkan
  65. Religious affiliation of the population, share of population, % 1950–2013 Statistics Finland
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  68. Template:Cite web
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  71. [2]. Zensus 2011 - Page 10.
  72. Template:Cite web
  73. http://www.pewforum.org/uploadedfiles/Topics/Demographics/Muslimpopulation.pdf Islam in Europe states 3.2% Muslims in European Union, but non-European Union countries harbour even more Muslims so percents go to about 5.2%.
  74. Template:Cite web
  75. Alice Bertha Gomme, Traditional Games of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Volume 2, 1898
  76. NRA-rounders.co.uk History of Rounders Template:Wayback

Lias esterna Edit

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