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Espio is a new conlang , derived from esperanto . Doctor Alinima created it in 2015 in an attempt to make it a simpler language, with few changes to vocabulary. Vowels (a, e, i, o, and u) are pronounced as in Spanish (approximately as ah, eh, ee, oh, and oo.) x = sh, c= ch, j = Jack

Espio words are formed by taking one or more roots, modifying them with one or more affixes, then adding grammatical endings.

  • Description Word Meaning
  • Root meaning "laugh" = rid No meaning
  • Adding infinitive verb ending -i ridi To laugh
  • Adding adjective ending -a rida Laughing (for example, "a laughing hyena" is rida hieno)
  • Adding noun ending -o rido (A) laugh
  • Adding noun ending -o and -ad affix meaning "repeated action" ridado Laughter (repeated laughs)
  • Root meaning "mock/tease" mok No meaning
  • Combining root for "mock" with root for "laugh", then adding infinitive verb ending -i mokridi (pri) To (mockingly) laugh (at)

Nouns

By themselves, nouns are indefinite (hundo means "a dog"). The definite particle is la (la hundo means "the dog").

Plural

Singular nouns end in -o . The plural is formed by adding -y (forming -oy).

  • hundo (a) dog
  • hundoy (some) dogs
  • la hundo the dog
  • la hundoy the dogs

Accusative case

When a noun is the object of a verb phrase, it is put after the verb, with no change to noun.

  • Hundo pelas kato . A dog is chasing a cat.

Verbal nouns

However, espio is much more specific than English. Skribanto means "writer", but it specifically means "person who is writing now", not "person who writes professionally" (which would be skribisto).

Passive verbal nouns

  • -ato One who is ...ed Amato One who is loved

Adjectives

All words ending in -a are adjectives.

  • granda hundo (a) big dog
  • La hundo havas ruja pilko. The dog has a red ball.
  • La hundo havas pilko ruja.

Verbal adjectives

  • -anta ...ing Paganta viro Paying man
  • -ata being ...ed Pagata viro A man being paid

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparatives are formed using pli (more) or min (less):

  • pli bela - more beautiful
  • min bela - less beautiful

Superlatives are formed using pley (most) or mey (least):

  • pley bela - most beautiful
  • mey bela - least beautiful

Pronouns

Pronouns do not have a grammatical ending. Most end in -i. The accusative and Subjective forms are the same, except the accusative comes after the verb.

  • Mi I
  • Vi You (singular and plural)
  • Li He
  • Xi She
  • Ji It
  • Ni We
  • Ili They
  • Oni One
  • Tu Thou

Oni means "one" in the sense of "how does one do that?" ("Kiel oni faras tio ?").

Possessive

Possessive pronouns are simply adjectives formed from the pronouns by adding -a.

  • Mia My/mine
  • Via Your/yours
  • Lia His
  • Xia Her/hers
  • Jia Its
  • Nia Our/ours
  • Ilia Their/theirs
  • Onia One's
  • Tua Thy/thine


  • Mia hundo pelas via kato . My dog is chasing your cat.
  • La blua pilkoj estas lia (pilkoy). The blue balls are his (balls).

Reflexive

The reflexive pronoun is si .

  • Li amas si . He loves himself.
    • If you said "Li amas li .", you would be saying "He loves him (some other guy)".
  • Mi lavas mia manoy. I wash my hands
    • If you said "Xi lavas xia manoy .", you would be saying "She washes her hands (some other woman's hands)".

Numbers

The cardinal numbers do not have a grammatical ending.

  • N ul Zero
  • Unu One
  • Du Two
  • Tri Three
  • Kvar Four
  • Kvin Five
  • Ses Six
  • Sep Seven
  • Ok Eight
  • Naw Nine
  • Dek Ten
  • Sent (One) hundred
  • Mil (One) thousand

Ordinals

Ordinal numbers are adjectives, formed with -a.

  • Unua First
  • Dua Second
  • Dudek-unua Twenty-first

With compound numbers, a hyphen must be used.

Adverbs

Adverbs are formed from roots with the ending -e.

  • Bone Well
  • Rapide Quickly


  • ec even
  • hodie today
  • iom a little, rather, some, somewhat, to some extent
  • jus just, just now
  • nun now
  • nur only
  • pli more
  • plu further, more
  • tro overly, too much
  • tuy immediately

Verbs

There are no irregular verbs. All conjugations are formed by adding the right ending to the root.

Infinitive

The infinitive ending is -i.

  • Esti aw ne esti. To be or not to be.
  • Mi volas skribi libroy . I want to write books.

Imperative

The imperative ending is -u. It is used for giving direct commands (Go!) or for expressing our will (Let's...).

  • Estu! Do it!
  • Ne skribu libroy . Don't write books.
  • Li skribu multa libroy ! Let him write many books/May he write many books!
  • Ni iru al la kineyo. Let's go to the cinema.
  • Mi iru tiam. I should go now.

Tenses

The present tense ending is -as. The past tense ending is -is. The future tense ending is -os. There is no agreement with number or gender of either subject or object.

  • Mi skribas libroy . I write books.

Conditional

The conditional ending is -us; as in English it is also used as a polite way to express a wish or request.

  • Se mi povus, mi skribus libroy . If I could, I would write books.
  • Se mi estus vi, mi skribus libroy . If I were you, I would write books.
  • Cu mi povus havi taso da teo? Could I have a cup of tea?

Participles

Participles are adjectives formed from verbs. There are two types: the active and the passive.

Active participles

-anta

  • (action still ongoing)
  • estas skribanta (is writing);
  • estis skribanta (was writing);
  • estos skribanta (will be writing)
  • Tu estos skribanta libro . You (singular) will be writing a book.
  • Vi estos skribanta libro . You (plural) will be writing a book.

Passive participles

Passive participles can be formed from transitive verbs and are used for the passive voice.

-ata(action still on-going)

  • esti skribata (to be (being) written)
  • estu skribata let it be written !
  • estus skribata (would be (being) written)
  • estis skribata(was (being) written)
  • estas skribata(was(being) written)
  • estos skribata (will be (being) written)


  • La libro estas skribata.

The book is being written.

The direct object of sentences in passive voice is denoted by (par) after the participle:

  • La libro estas skribata par mi. The book is being written by me.

Conjunctions

ankore still, yet aw or cu whether kay and ke that krom besides, in addition to eksepte except se if sed but aw ... aw ... either... or ... kay ... kay ... both... and ...

La viro kay marxas kay kuras. The man both walks and runs.

nek ... nek ... neither ... nor ...

Ili nek marxas nek kuras. They neither walk nor run.

Comparatives


Comparatives are formed by adjectives and adverbs.



pli ... ol ... more ... than ...

Lakto estas pli nutra ol vino. Milk is more nutritious than wine.

min ... ol ... less ... than ... mey bela least pretty Vino estas min nutra ol lakto. Wine is less nutritious than milk.

tiel ... kiel ... as ... as ...

Vi estas tiel forta, kiel mi. You are as strong as I.

tia ... kia ... such ... as ...

Tia domo, kia tiu, estas rara. Such a house as that is rare.

sama ... kia ... the same (kind of thing) ... as ...

Mia bastono estas tia sama, kia la via. My stick is the same as yours.

sama ... kiel ... the same (way or method) ... as ...

Jia uzado estas tia sama, kiel en la alia lingvoy. Its use is the same as in the other languages.

The Time of Day


Ordinal numbers (unua, dua) are used for the hour of the day, with horo expressed or understood. The minutes are expressed by cardinal numbers (unu, du). In questions, as well as using kiam, the adjective kioma (from kiom, how much) can be used:


Kiam vi alvenos? When will you arrive? Kioma horo estas? What hour (what o'clock, what time) is it? Ye kioma horo vi venos? At what time (what o'clock) will you come? Estas la dua horo. It is two o'clock (it is the second hour). Estas la tria kay kvin minutoy. It is five minutes past three. Ni iris ye la sesa kay duono. We went at half past six. Estas la oka kay kvardek kvin. It is eight forty-five. Estas unu kvarono ante la nawa. It is a quarter to nine. Estas dudek minutoy ante la deka. It is twenty minutes to ten.


Esperanto Prefixes and Suffixes


Prefixes

bo—

relative by marriage, in-law bopatrino, mother-in-law; bofrato, brother-in-law

non- opposite amiko, nonamiko = friend, enemy

ne just negation ;ne lernebla, not learnable eks— former, ex- eksrejo, ex-king; eksprezidento, ex-president; eksiji, leave office, resign, retire

mis— wrong, mis- miskompreni, to misunderstand pra— primordiality, remoteness of relationship praarbaro, primitive forest; prahistorio, history of the distant past; pravorto, primitive word; pranevino, grand- niece; praonklino, great aunt re— return, repetition, re- revidi, re-see (see again); rekanti, re-sing; relegi, to re- read; redoni, return, restore

Suffixes —ad— (adds the idea of action) action, particularly prolonged, repeated, or habitual

najado, swimming; pafado, shooting; sangado, bleeding; batado, beating; kuirado, cooking; kantado, singing; parolado, speech; lavado, washing

—aj

denotes concrete idea novajo, news; pakajo, package; glasiajo, ice cream; acetajo, purchase; bildajo, building

—an— member (of a group), inhabitant (of a country) klubano, member of club; Akademiano, member of Academy; vilajano, villager; Kristano, Christian; xipano, mariner, sailor; Afrikano, African —ar— collection (group, set) of (several or all) units of the same kind arbaro, forest; vortaro, dictionary; xiparo, fleet; meblaro, furniture; xafaro, flock (of sheep); homaro, humanity, human race; kamparo, countryside

—ebl—

denotes possibility, -able, -ible

awdebla, audible; videbla, visible; portebla, portable; legebla, legible; lernebla, easy-to-learn

—es— denotes quality or state (in abstract form), -ship, -ness amikeso, friendship; blankeso, whiteness; boneso, goodness; vereso, truthfulness; frateso, brotherliness; frawleso, bachelorhood

—eg—

great in size or degree

grandega, enormous, immense; domego, mansion; virego, giant; amegi, love passionately; nonamegi, detest, abhor; ungego, talon, claw; nonsanega, at death’s door

—ey—

place (with verb root) where an action occurs lerneyo, school; najeyo, swimming pool; hundeyo, doghouse —em—

denotes an inclination, bent, bias, proclivity, leaning, -full parolema, talkative; ludema, playful; timema, fearful; mortema, mortal; pardonema, merciful —estr—

leader, head, “boss”, ruler, commander, chief hotelestro, hotel manager; estraro, leadership (governing body); xipestro, captain; familiestro, head of the family; imperiestro, emperor; stasiestro, station master

—et— dimunitive; weakens the idea of the root to a high degree dometo, cottage; dormeto, to doze, nap; voyeto, path; xipeto, boat; rideti, to smile; blueta, bluish —id—

offspring of living creatures hundido, puppy; katido, kitten; arbido, seedling; bovido, calf xafido, lamb; musido, baby mouse; rejido, prince; Israelido, Israelite —ig—

make, cause to be , render, -ify blankigi, bleach, whiten; akridi, to sharpen; klarigi, clarify, explain; purigi, to clean; nuligi, to nullify, cancel, void; boligi, to (cause to) boil

—ij become , come to be, get, grow, turn grandiji, to become big; tristji , to become sad

—il— object used to perform an action, appliance, tool, implement, instrument skribilo, anything used for writing; hakilo, axe; ludilo, toy; fotilo, camera; trancilo, knife; muzikilo, musical instrument; kudrilo, needle

—in—

denotes female, feminine onklino, aunt; fratino, sister; bovino, cow; porkino, sow; mayro/mayrino ; skoltino, girl scout; cevalino, mare; amikino, female friend

—ind—

worthy of, deserving of fidinda, trustworthy; admirinda, admirable; lerninda, worth learning; leginda, worth reading; aminda, lovable; lawdinda, praiseworthy; memorinda, memorable

—ism—

doctrine, movement, theory, system,-

Platonismo, Platonism; alkoholismo, alcoholism; imperiismo, imperialism; optimismo, optimism; turismo, turism; Budhismo, Buddhism

—ist—

person connected with the root, usually by profession (business, calling, vocation, habitual interest) dentisto, dentist; marksisto, Marxist; instruisto, teacher; floristo, florist; muzikisto, musician; maristo, sailor; aferisto, businessman; poxtisto, postal worker; (leter)portisto, (letter) carrier

—obl—

denotes multiplication, -ple duobla, twofold; triobla, triple; multobla, manifold

—on— denotes fraction, -th duono, half; kvarono, quarter; du trionoy, 2/3; dekono, tenth; sep okonoy, 7/8; dekonayo, tithe

—op—

collective numeral (number of elements together, in a group) unuope, one at a time; duope, in twos (pairs), two by two; triope, in threes, three by three

—uy— container, receptacle, holder (also countries) inkuyo, inkwell; monuyo, purse; capeluyo, hatbox; Italuyo, Italy (holds Italians); abeluyo, beehive

—ul— denotes individual (person) junulo, youth; drinkulo, drunkard; oldulino, an old woman; sanktulo, saint; bonulo, a good person

—um— no definite meaning: sense is defined by usage or context fridumo, a cold; manumo, cuff; krusumi, to crucify; plenumi, to fulfill, perform; okulumi, to ogle

Common Espio Phrases


Hello Saluto .

Welcome Bonveno .

Good morning Bona mateno . Bona tago . Good evening Bona vespero . Excuse me Pardonu mi .

I'm sorry Mi bedawras. Sir, Mister Sinyoro

Ma'am, Mrs., Ms. Sinyorino Miss Frawlino Good-bye Jis la revido! Caw ! How are you? Kiel vi fartas? Fine/OK Bone. Thank you Danko. Yes No No. May I present my... Yen mia...

Friend amiko husband/wife mayro/mayrino

boyfriend/girlfriend koramiko/koramikino

It’s a pleasure. Estas plezuro. I love you. Mi amas vin. All the best! Cio bona !

What time is it? Kioma estas la horo?

It's one o'clock Estas la unua.

When will you arrive? Ye kioma horo vi venos?

What is your name? Kiel vi nomijas? My name is... Mi nomijas...

Where are you from? De kie vi estas?

I am from... Mi estas de...

The United States of America Usono The U.K. Britio Australia Awstralio

Canada Kanado How old are you?{ Kiom vi ajas? Kiom da yaroy vi havas? I am.. years old Mi estas..-yara.

Where is...? Kie estas?

Where is the bathroom? Kie estas la neseseyo? Do you speak Esperanto? Cu vi parolas Esperanto ?

Do you speak English? Cu vi parolas la angla? How do you say... in Espio? Kiel oni diras... en Espio?

Would you like...? Cu vi volas...?

I would like... Mi volas...

I am looking for... Mi sercas...

I am hungry. Mi famas

I am thirsty. Mi soifas.

I am lost. Mi estis perdata.

I am sick. Mi estas malada, nonsana

I need help. Mi bezonas helpo .

Where am I? Kie mi estas?

July 4

La kvara de julio

January januaro

February februaro

March marto

April aprilo

May mayo

June junio

July julio

August awgusto

September septembro

October oktobro

November novembro

December desembro

Sunday

dimanco

Monday lundo

Tuesday mardo

Wednesday merkredo

Thursday jawdo

Friday vendredo

Saturday sabato ---

Vocabulary.


ciu viro, every man ciu viroy, all men ciuy venas all are coming tiu viro, that man tiu viroy, those men tiuy venas all those are coming

rivero, river. lando, land. sejo, seat. dawro, duration. okupo, occupation. pluvo, rain. vagonaro, train. surprizo, surprise. fulmo, lightning. lumo, a light. darko , darkness paf-, shoot. jet-, throw. awd-, hear. fal-, fall. atend-, wait for, expect. latsig-, make tired. latsa tired rigard-, look. salt-, jump. rapida, quick. klara, clear. lerte, cleverly. kelke, some. ciuminute, every minute. tra, through.

Li donis al mi mono , sed mi tuj redonis ji al li. Mi foriras, sed atendu min, car mi balde revenos. La suno rebrilas en la klara akvo de la rivero. Li reiris al sia lando. Xi rejetis si sur la sejo .

En la dawro de kelka da minutoj mi awdis du pafoj . La pafado dawris tre longe. Lia hiera parolo estis tre bela, sed la tro multa parolado latsigas li . Li kantas tre bela kanto . La kantado estas agrabla okupo. La pluvo faladis per riveroj. Ciuminute xi elrigardis tra la fenestro, kay ne xatis la lenta irado de la vagonaro.

Mi saltas tre lerte. Mi eksaltis pro surprizo. Mi saltadis la tuta tago de loko al loko. Kiam vi parolis, mi atendis awdi io nova . La diamanto havas bela brilo. Xi lasis la diamanto brili. Du briloj de fulmo trakuris tra la darka cielo.


Vocabulary. tempo, time.


mondo, world. lingvo, language. nombro, number. legendo, legend. loko, place. salono, drawing-room. eraro, mistake. soldato, soldier. strato, street. pek-, sin. fal-, fall. mensog-, tell a lie. pas-, pass (as time passes). atend-, wait, expect. sav-, save, rescue. danc-, dance. kred-, believe. ripet-, repeat. arest-, arrest. yuj-, judge. konduk-, lead, conduct. voyaj-, travel, journey. xtel-, steal. ripoz-, rest, repose. diradis, used to say (tell). futuro , future (about to be). vera, true. intente, intentionally. fasile, easily. ante, formerly, previously. dum, while, whilst, during. neniam, never. neniu, nobody. sen, without. senmove, motionless. marj- marry , la marjo de mia fratino, marju mi! Mia lovato. Mi estas marjata, ne marjinda virino. dista , distant kurta, short iometa, little kosto, cost; kosteta cheap, kostega, kostoza expensive Fluanta akvo estas pli pura, ol akvo staranta senmove. La falanta homo ne povas levi si . La tempo pasanta yam neniam revenos; la tempo futurma neniu ankore konas. Venu, ni atendas vin, Savanto de la mondo. En la lingvo Espio ni vidas la futura lingvo de la tuta mondo. La nombro de la dansantoj estis granda. Xi estas la legendo, kiu la vera kredantoy ciam ripetas. Li kondukis la voyajanto al la loko, kie la xtelantoy ripozis. Al homo, pekanta senintente, Dio fasile pardonas. La soldatoy kondukis veturiloy tra la stratoj. Homo, kiu oni devas yuji, estos yujato.

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