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La linguas xines (o sinitica) es plu coreta un familia o grupo de linguas relatada, desendentes de un lingua, xines vea, parlada par la han de Xina norde. La familia es un de la du ramos de la familia xino-tibetan. Sirca un sinci de la popla de la mundo - 1200 milion - parla alga forma de xines per se lingua nativa. La plu de linguistes crede ce es sirca 10 "dialetos" de xines, con putong (o mandarin) la plu grande, con sirca 850 milion persones.

Putong es la forma usada per un "lingua franca" en Xina, e la model es la dialeto parlada en Beijing. Putong es ance un de la ses linguas ofisial de la Nasiones Unida. Guangdong (o cantones), con 80 milion parlores, es ance importante, e es un de la linguas ofisial de Hong Cong (Hongcong) e Macau.

La linguas xines difere en multe modos, ma tota ave tonos, un gramatica analitica, e parolas corta. Los ave ance un forma de scrive - la scrive xines (o 漢字 / 汉字 Handzi) - ce es un sistem de carateres ce represente cosas, ideas, e sonas.

Per la gramatica de xines (putong), clica asi.

Linguasxines

La linguas en la familia xines es...

  • Putong (o Mandarin) 北方话 / 北方話 o 官話 / 官话 (c. 800 milion)
  • U 吳/吴 (c. 90 milion)
  • Guangdong (Cantones o Yue) 粵 / 粤, (c. 80 milion)
  • Min 閩 / 闽 (c. 50 milion)
  • Jin 晉 / 晋 (simile a Putong, c. 45 milion)
  • Xiang 湘, (c. 35 milion)
  • Haca 客家 o 客, (c. 35 milion)
  • Gan 贛 / 赣, (c. 20 milion)
  • Hui 徽 (simile a U, c. 3.2 milion)
  • Ping 平話 / 平话 (simile a Guangdong, c. 200,000)

Gramatica Edit

Tempo Edit

Pasada:

  • 之前, 曾經, 剛才/剛剛, 昨天, 一個月前, 上一個月, 了, 過...
  • 過 guo - "past experience" (perfect tense) - [elefen: ia ...]
    • 我喝過水。 = I have drunk water.
  • 了 le - "finish, realize" (already) - [elefen: ... ja]
    • 我喝了水。 = I drank water.
  • 之前 "possessive-preceding" (before) - [elefen: ia ... a ante, ia ... ja]
    • 之前我喝了水。 = I drank water before this.
  • 曾經 "already-pass through" (once/before) - [elefen: ia ... a un ves]
    • 我曾經喝過水。 = I have drunk water before.
  • 剛才 "exactly-just" /剛剛 (just now) - [elefen: ia ... apena]
    • 我剛才喝了水/我剛才喝水了/我剛才喝過水了。 = I have just drunk water.
  • 昨天 (yesterday) -
    • 昨天我喝了水。 = Yesterday I drank water. [elefen: ia ... ier]
  • 一個月前(a month ago) -
    • 一個月前我去旅遊了。 = A month ago I went travelling.
  • 上一個月/(last month) -
    • 上一個月我去旅遊了。 = Last month I went travelling.

Presente:

  • 現在 "now-time", 此刻 "this-moment" / 這刻 "this-moment", 目前 "see-forward" , 正在 "just now-in the middle of..." [elefen: aora, en la media de, es ...-nte]
    • 我(現在/此刻/這刻/目前/正)在喝水。= I am drinking water.
  • 在 = continuous tense, but it is not added behind the verb, it is added before the verb [elefen: es... -nte]

Futur:

  • 快將 "quickly-future" / 快會 "quickly-occasion" / 將會 "future-occasion" / 將 "future" [elefen: va ...]
    • 我(快將/快會/將會/將)喝水。 = I will drink water.
  • 快 (quickly) -
    • (你)快喝水。 = (You) (will) drink water.
  • 待會兒 "wait-occasion-little" / 一會兒 "one-occasion-little" (soon/a moment later) - [elefen: pronto, direta]
    • 我(待會兒/一會兒)喝水。 = I will drink water soon.

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